Analysis of the fake mirror mirror
Date of release:2019-01-19 Author: Click:
First, the antique counterfeit
In the identification of ancient Chinese bronze mirrors, the identification of antique mirrors is an important aspect, especially the fact that some antique mirrors are realistic and difficult to identify. At present, there are a certain number of antique mirrors in the bronze mirrors collected in various parts of China, and few people have studied this aspect. Fortunately, Mr. Cheng Changxin, the late expert of cultural relics identification, specially discussed in his monograph "Bronze Mirror Appreciation". His research has greatly helped us identify antique mirrors.
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To identify antique mirrors, we must first understand the type of mirrors and the era of mirrors, especially to find out the characteristics and laws of mirrors in different eras.
Second, the era of mirroring
The era of so-called mirrors includes two aspects. First, when will China start making antique mirrors? The second is the mirror of imitation in the mirror?
One opinion is that the bronze mirror antiques began from the Tang Dynasty. After the Song Dynasty, courts and folk antique mirrors prevailed, and mirrors of various styles were imitation. One view is that antique mirrors began in the Song Dynasty, and the Tang Dynasty did not imitate Han mirrors. The imitation Han mirrors began in the Song Dynasty. Another opinion is that Song does not imitate Chinese mirrors. Many Song-like Han mirrors that have been considered in the past are actually mirrors of the Ming Dynasty.
Judging from the era of mirroring, there are many different opinions. It can be seen that researching and identifying mirrors is a top priority for the vast number of cultural relics and archaeologists. Because it involves identification, collection, acquisition, sale, etc., it must be done with caution.
Third, the imitation method
As far as we know, imitation mirrors are nothing more than two methods. One is to use the early mirror to directly flip the mold, and the other is to use the stencil to simulate the mold. The former is simple in method, easy to make, easy to identify, easy to say, and difficult to say. Difficulty. Because the original mirror pattern, inscriptions are clear, and the lines are smooth, the mirrors are directly turned. Although the mirrors are the same, they are often decorated with inscriptions and inscriptions, and the lines are not smooth. At first glance, the feeling is different and easy to identify. However, there are some real mirrors. Due to the age, the production is not refined, the inscriptions and patterns are also blurred, and some imitation mirrors are also good, so it is not easy to use these standards to determine the mirrors. In the case of the same mirror type, ornamentation and inscription, it is also necessary to pay attention to the copper of the bronze mirror and the thickness of the mirror body.
It is more complicated to use the original mirror as a model to simulate the mold. There are at least two situations. One is that the original mirror pattern and the inscription are imitation on the model. Although the bronze mirror is different in shape, the inscription and the ornament are similar. It needs to be compared to determine whether it is a mirror. The second is that although the original mirror is used as the transcript, but the cast-in-the-shoulders have added carvings and inscriptions, the mirrors that have been cast have some inconsistencies with the era of inscriptions, such as the Chinese Mirror but the common inscriptions in the Ming Dynasty mirrors; Some shapes and patterns vary. As long as you are familiar with Chinese bronze mirrors, such mirrors are easy to identify.
Fourth, the type of mirror
The types of mirrors in different eras are different. Even in the same type of mirrors, imitation of different eras has a focus.
Tang Dynasty imitation mirror:
Is there a mirror in the Tang Dynasty? There are still different opinions. Mr. Cheng Changxin once said that he saw the Tang Dynasty Han mirror. In addition, in the "Unearthed Bronze Mirror in Shaanxi Province", there was a Chinese-style mirror unearthed from the tomb. If the era of tombstone burial is not wrong, then the two-sided bronze mirror should be a reliable Tang-like Han mirror.
Song Dynasty imitation mirror:
As mentioned earlier, some people think that Song does not imitate Han mirror, and some people think that Song has imitated Han mirror, but mainly like Tang mirror. According to the information currently seen, the Song Dynasty has indeed copied the Han and Tang dynasty bronze mirrors.
Han mirror: sun mirror, Zhaoming mirror, innocent mirror, portrait mirror, gauge mirror, dragon and tiger mirror.
Jin Dynasty imitation mirror:
The Jin Dynasty mainly resembles the patterns of Han, Tang and Song mirrors.
Imitation Han Mirror: Nebula Mirror, Four Milk "Homely Rich" Mirror, Sunlight Mirror, Zhaoming Mirror, Rule Mirror, Four Animal Mirror, Portrait Mirror, Innocent Mirror, Dragon and Tiger Mirror.
Imitation Tang mirror: Sea beast grape mirror most.
Imitation Song mirror: flower mirror, gossip mirror, Huzhou no mirror.
Imitation of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the Republic of China:
The antique atmosphere is extremely prosperous, the court folks are imitation, and the mirrors of each period are imitation.
The imitation of the national mirror: daylight mirror, Zhaoming mirror, gauge mirror, disk dragon mirror, dragon tiger mirror, double phoenix mirror, portrait mirror, frog mirror.
Imitation Tang mirror: sea beast grape mirror, flower bird mirror, curved animal mirror.
Imitation Song Jinjing: character story mirror, Huzhou mirror, double fish mirror, inscription mirror.
From the types of mirrors in the above eras, the Han Dynasty's Sunlight, Zhaoming and other inscription mirrors, the rules mirror, the portrait mirror, the dragon and the tiger mirror, the Tang Dynasty's sea beast grape mirror, the Swiss animal mirror, the flower and bird mirror, the Song Dynasty's Huzhou mirror, the gossip mirror Etc. is an important mirror of the imitation of later generations. Among them, the sun and Zhaoming mirrors of the Han Dynasty were almost imitation of the past. The imaginary mirrors of various eras have been clarified, and the key areas for the identification of mirrors have undoubtedly been drawn.
In different eras, Bronze Mirrors have different characteristics and will be influenced by politics, economy, ideology, culture and customs at that time. What is the mirror, what about the mirror? We believe that although the mirror has the characteristics of a true mirror, it is not a product of that era. It must inevitably reveal some characteristics of the era in which the mirror is located. It is extremely important to summarize the characteristics of the mirror in different eras.